Compelling evidence of neutrino process opens physics possibilities

The Correscent Particle Physics experiment at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory of the Department of Energy has firmly established the existence of a new kind of neutrino interaction. Because neutrinos are electrically neutral and only weakly interact with matter, the discovery of observing this interaction led to advances in detector technology and added new information to theories to explain the mysteries of the universe.

“Neutrino is thought to be at the heart of many open questions about the nature of the universe,” said Indiana University physics professor Rex Taolo. He led the installation, operation, and data analysis of the cryogenic liquid argon detector for neutrinos at the DOE Office of Science User Facility, Neutron Source, or SNS at ORNL.

This study, published in Physical Review Letters, found that low-energy neutrinos undergo coherent elastic neutrino-nucleus scattering, or CEvNS, through a weak argon nucleino, pronounced “suture”. Bombarded in a softball like a ping-pong ball, a neutrino that collides with the nucleus transfers a small amount of energy to only very large nuclei, which recalibrate almost impermeably in response to a small attack.

The foundation for the discovery with the argon nucleus was a 2017 study published in Science in which COHERENT colleagues used the world’s smallest neutrino detector to provide the first evidence of the CEvNS process as neutrinos produced larger and heavier cesium and Iodide was interacted with nuclei. His raccoils were also small, such as bowling balls reacting to ping-pong balls.

“The standard model of particle physics predicts coherent elastic scattering of neutrinos,” said Duke University physicist Kate Scholberg, spokesperson and organizer of the Science and Technology Goals for Coherent. The collaboration has 80 participants from 19 institutions and four countries.

“Given the neutrino interaction with argon, the lightest nucleus for which it has been measured confirms the earlier observation from heavier nuclei. Measuring the process precisely establishes an alternative theoretical model for inhibition.”

Yuri Efremenko, a physicist at the University of Tennessee, Knoxville and ORNL, who led the development of more sensitive photodetectors, said, “Argon provides a ‘door’ of sorts. The CEVNS process is like a building we should know about. That the first exists. The measurement on sodium and iodide was a door that gave us to locate the building. We have now opened this other argon door.

“The argon data correspond to the standard model within the error bars. However, the accuracy of enhancements enabled by larger detectors may allow scientists to see something new. “Seeing something unexpected will be like opening the door and seeing the magnificent treasure,” Efferemenko said.

“We’re looking for ways to break the standard model. We love the standard model; it’s been really successful. But there are a few things that don’t make it clear,” physicist Jason Newby, ORNL for Corrent The head of said. “We suspect that in these small places where the model may break, the answers to big questions about the nature of the universe, Antimatter, and Dark Matter, for example, may lie in wait.”

The COHERENT team uses the world’s brightest pulsed neutron source in the SNS to help find answers. The production of neutron SNSs for research produces neutrinos as a by-product. A service corridor below the SNS mercury target was transformed into the Dutored Neutrino Laboratory, called Neutrino Aleb, led by Newbie and Apheremenko.

CENNS-10 sits from a low-energy neutrino source, called a 53-pound or 24-kilogram, detector, that sits 90 feet or 27.5 meters, optimizing the opportunities for spotting interacting objects . This means that the weakening force of the nucleus near the neutrinals is observed overall, leading to a larger effect than noncovalent interactions.

Larger detectors are better at making high precision measurements, and the CENNS-10 detector technology is easier to scale by simply adding more liquid argon.

The CENNS-10 detector was originally built in Fermilab by Jonghe Yeo, an affiliate of COHERENT. He and Tayloe brought it to IU before it was set up at SNS in 2016 and reused it there. Newby and Efremenko designed the SNS site with layered lead, copper and water to eliminate the Newborn background.

After initial measurements indicated that the experiment would not dominate the background, wavelength-shifting coatings were applied to photodetectors and inner reflectors that significantly improved light collection. The detector was calibrated by injecting krypton-83m into liquid argon to calculate the number of photons present.

The published results use 18 months of data collected from CENNS-10. Analysis of the data revealed 159 CEVNS events in line with the standard model prediction.

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